Le droit à la déconnexion en entreprise, qu’est-ce que c’est ?

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Le droit à la déconnexion est un principe légal récent, lié à la généralisation du numérique en entreprise. La France a été le premier pays en Europe à inscrire ce principe dans le Code du Travail. Mais en quoi consiste-t-il ? Quelles garanties offre-t-il aux salariés et comment les mettre en place au sein de l’entreprise ? C’est ce que nous allons voir ci-dessous.

En quoi consiste le droit à la déconnexion ?

Il s’agit, comme nous l’avons vu, d’un droit récent, qui est apparu parallèlement à la généralisation des moyens de communication numériques, qu’il s’agisse de messageries professionnelles ou encore de messageries instantanées souvent fournies sur les plateformes de travail collaboratives des entreprises, pour faciliter l’organisation des équipes.

Le droit à la déconnexion a été instauré en France par la Loi Travail de 2016 et est détaillé dans l’article 2242-17 du Code du Travail. L’objectif de ce texte est d’éviter que le salarié ne se retrouve à devoir répondre à des sollicitation professionnelles expédiées par voie numérique durant son temps libre. Il s’agit donc de préserver le droit à la vie privée. 

Avec le « tout numérique », la tentation est grande de solliciter l’employé ou le fonctionnaire en-dehors de son temps de travail

Mais pourquoi a-t-il semblé nécessaire au législateur d’inscrire ce droit à la déconnexion dans la loi ? Tout simplement parce qu’avec le « tout numérique », la tentation est grande de solliciter l’employé ou le fonctionnaire en-dehors de son temps de travail. La loi rappelle que le salarié n’a pas à être constamment joignable.

Comment le mettre en place en entreprise ?

La question de la mise en œuvre et du respect de ce principe du droit se pose en entreprise, mais aussi dans la Fonction Publique. Le Code du Travail n’indique pas comment le droit à la déconnexion doit être garanti. C’est donc au niveau local, en entreprise, et dans le cadre de la négociation interne sur les conditions de travail, qu’un protocole doit être mis en place. L’objectif de cet accord est de définir le cadre dans lequel les outils numériques de communication peuvent être utilisés.

L’employeur peut aussi décider d’établir une charte sur avis du comité d’entreprise ou après consultation des délégués du personnel. Il est tenu de prévoir une formation des différents acteurs à l’emploi raisonné du numérique dans le cadre professionnel, de manière à éviter les dérives. On sait aujourd’hui que des sollicitations constantes, y compris hors des horaires de travail, contribuent pour une part non négligeable aux phénomènes d’épuisement professionnel de type burn out. 

L’enjeu pour l’employeur réside non seulement dans le respect de ses obligations légales, mais aussi dans le maintien d’une qualité de vie au travail

L’enjeu pour l’employeur réside donc non seulement dans le respect de ses obligations légales et du droit à la déconnexion, mais aussi dans le maintien d’une qualité de vie au travail et de bonnes relations entre les membres des équipes, dans le respect de tous. Un arrêt de la Cour de cassation de 2018 a par ailleurs rappelé qu’un employeur qui demande à ses salariés de demeurer disponibles doit les indemniser pour le temps consacré à cette mission.

Déconnecter, c’est aussi prendre le temps de s’arrêter pour une vraie pause déjeuner

Anne Spicher

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